Roadmap to 2050: The Land-Water-Energy Nexus of Biofuels

This report is the result of a workshop held in late 2020 where land-use, energy, water, and biofuel technology scientists, engineers, and professionals from around the world explored the incorporation of biofuels into decarbonization strategies at national and sectoral scales. It adds onto FEEM and SDSN’s Roadmap to 2050: A Manual for Nations to Decarbonize by Mid-Century published in 2019, which discussed the state of decarbonization technologies in the power, industry, transport, and buildings sectors. Although land-use, agriculture, and biofuels were identified as potential key solutions, they were not analyzed in depth in the first report. Therefore, this new report, Roadmap to 2050: The Land-Water-Energy Nexus of Biofuels, covers “the intricacies of the global biofuel market, the evolution of key technologies, and the intersection of biofuel production on the land, water, and the local economies from which they are created.” The analysis focuses on both the technical application and market implications of sustainable traditional crop-based, second generation, and third generation biofuels. Controversies connected to the scalability of biofuels, such as potential competition with agriculture and the resulting impacts on food security, are addressed with a holistic approach. Additionally, the report includes case studies of biofuels in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil, the United States, and the European Union, as well as relevant policy recommendations.

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